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Ten Labels to Solve Your Engineering Challenges


Put the right one on There’s a right label for every application and Brady has designed a handy cheat sheet to help you on your way. When choosing a label, you’ll want to ask yourself several questions – Will the Read more

Dry Air Static Control and Ionizers


Dry air and ESD control The specifications and devices being assembled determine the recommended humidity range for a manufacturing facility. When the air is dry, static control becomes much more challenging. Although ESD events may be reduced by increasing the Read more

Zero in on Smog with Weller’s Fume Extractors


Weller Zero Smog Fume Extractors Compared   Smog - fog or haze combined with smoke and other atmospheric pollutants Weller’s fume extractors remove dangerous gases and harmful particles out of the air, typically while soldering to create a healthier environment. If you’re Read more

What to Consider When Choosing an Electro-Static Disapative (ESD) Mat

Posted on by Barb N. in ESD Mats, ESD News Leave a comment

Choose your ESD mat with care

sierra-1695_ftwg_dv_webxl

Sierra Heavy Duty Rubber Worktop Mat Kit with Wrist Strap, Ground Cord and Snaps

Like everything in manufacturing, the Electro-Static Disapative (ESD) mat, whatever type, continues to evolve to keep areas ESD-safe. Before you buy, think about what you really need to do the job. Mats come in all sizes and shapes and materials and can be expensive, depending on the application.

First the skinny on ESD mat types –

Conductive Mats (101 to 105 ohm) – low electrical resistance allowing ESD to flow across the surface. When grounded the ESD flows to ground and neutralizes the excess charge on the mat and worker.

Anti-Static Mats (105 to 1012 ohm) – higher electrical resistance than conductive mats and like conductive mats allow ESD to flow across the surface, however at a slower rate to prevent damage to microcircuit devices unable to tolerate a sudden flow of static charge from the device to a grounded mat.

Non-Conductive Mats (Insulator) (1012 ohm or higher) – prevent the flow of ESD across the surface. Generally used in high voltage environments where electrical charge movement of is undesirable and potentially life threatening.

 

CONSIDERATIONS –

  1. Rate of Neutralization– for work environments and many applications mats for neutralizing ESD range from 105 to 1011 ohm to efficiently address static. Dissipation of static electric charges will happen rapidly and at a controlled rate.
  2. Setting– Will the mat be used on carpet or hard surface like concrete? Mats can cause accidents, for instance, tripping if on carpet, or sliding if on concrete. Most rubber and vinyl conductive and anti-static mats will not wear well against chairs or carts. The wheels and weight will cause breakdown. Use ESD mats made to work on carpet or under chairs.
  3. CostA highpriced mat doesn’t mean it’s the right mat. For instance, more expensive ones like conductive mats could damage devices with microcircuits by reducing static charges too fast.
  4. Cleaning – Keep your mat clean and residue-free. Special static control cleaning solutions are available. Some mats can be dry-mopped or just swept.
  5. Life of Your Mat – If properly cared for, mats can last for years. Depending on your mat type, they can be self-healing and also very resistant to solder drips and spits.

Benefits

  • ESD mats protect sensitive equipment by drawing static electricity off workers before they touch susceptible objects. An ESD mat safely transfers static from a worker to the ground.
  • They’re generally cushy—so they help your back, your feet, everything that can begin to hurt after hours of standing up. Think anti-fatigue.

Note – Ungrounded conductive or anti-static mats hold an ESD charge and will transfer a charge to the next thing the mat touches.

All-Spec carries a large assortment of ESD mats. Have questions? Our customer service representatives can help guide you to the right mat for your application.

 

Did you know?  The most significant invention to accelerate the electronics revolution happened in 1948 with the invention of the transistor. Next, in 1958 Jack Kirby invented the integrated circuit (Nobel Prize winner 2000) Half a year later Robert Noyce (and a co-founder of Intel) opened the door to smaller and more reliable, complex devices with the invention of the computer chip. Today, IC architectures can carry more than a billion transistors on a chip and soon may execute more than 4 trillion calculations per second. All this has led to less spacing between pin-outs of each chip and the transistors’ gates and junctions and, therefore the need for advanced ESD control. (more)


The Benefits of ESD-Safe Turntables -Take One for a Spin

Posted on by Barb N. in Cleanroom, ESD News, Product Reviews, Static Control Tips and Tricks, Technical Articles Leave a comment

Remember the lazy Susan?

imagesOnce a staple on every dining room table where with a spin of a wooden disc your salt and pepper shakers suddenly appeared in front of you. The same idea works for an ESD-safe turntable, however this disc does much more than turn.

Just like the revolving server, the turntable rotates to make working on large products and assemblies easier. With an ESD-safe turntable you avoid lifting heavy objects and–potential back injuries. With just a turn of the wheel you can access your next work area with ease—no lifting, lugging or jostling into place. And of course, the turntable eliminates electrostatic build-up.

The devices can be used on grounded or ungrounded surfaces, however on ungrounded surfaces the turntable must be grounded. The sizes range from 12” to 20” and come in different shapes depending on your application and preference.

esd-turntable

ESD-Safe Turntable – Not for use with food. Great for heavy objects.

The ESD-safe turntable can be an invaluable tool in the electronics industry and has become a staple in its own right at many workstations. See a choice of ESD-safe turntables at All-Spec including these brands – Protektive Pak, Fancort, Sovella and Desco.

Summary –

  • Keeps heavy objects grounded and shielded from static
  • Eliminates heavy lifting or transport
  • Protects workers, products and components
  • Useful all kinds of heavy assembly, rework or maintenance jobs
  • Removes charges on contact with grounded ESD surfaces

 

 

SEE HOW IT WORKS – Protektive Pak ESD Turntable


Industry Council Wants Universal Understanding of Electrical Overstress

Posted on by Barb N. in ESD News, Industry News Leave a comment

 Electrical Overstress (EOS)

In August 2016, the Industry Council on ESD Target Levels released a new white paper on Electrical Overstress (EOS). The Council gathered information via a survey sent to more than 90 companies asking them about the importance of EOS to their business and their methods for addressing EOS issues. One of their first steps—create a universal definition of EOS –

EOS – an electrical device suffers an electrical overstress event when a maximum limit for either the voltage across, the current through, or power dissipated in the device is exceeded and causes immediate damage or malfunction, or latent damage resulting in an unpredictable reduction of its lifetime.

In general, they found that ESD damage was often confused with EOS damage and those responsible for identifying failures were many times either inconsistent or incorrect in their findings. The Council also created multiple goals after gaining insight from the survey and laid out plans for the future.

Industry Council goals –

  • unified agreement eosReduce EOS occurrences
  • Create a unified global understanding of what constitutes EOS
  • Understand how EOS damage signatures can result from a wide variety of root causes
  • Address possible preventable failures showing EOS damage
  • Explain the non-correlation between EOS return rates and component ESD target levels
  • Standardize EOS reporting to reduce mislabeling damage as EOS
  • Continue to dispel the notion that EOS can be avoided by making devices more ESD robust (ref. JEDEC publications JEP155 [1] and JEP157)

 

The white paper contains very detailed explanations and diagrams to help EOS data reporters improve. (IC suppliers, i.e., customers, applications engineers and system builders). One of their most significant findings concerned Absolute Maximum Rating (AMR) and the actual meaning of maximum limit. (see definition of EOS) and the different methods a manufacturer uses to determine a device’s AMR values.

Industry Council on ESD survey resultsThe survey concluded –

  • Some suppliers do not include ESD limits as part of their AMR because testing to establish the ESD limits often does not have the similar statistical data required for setting more traditional items such as voltage.
  • Some suppliers do place ESD limits in their AMR definition believing this is part of the overall agreement that must be met between supplier and customer.
  • Other suppliers placed ESD limits in AMR sections because it was the only place that made sense to them.

 

The Council asks manufacturers to go back to suppliers to verify the AMR information published before the release of their EOS white paper.

 The white paper concluded –

  1. EOS has never been fully understood or accurately and thoroughly explained or interpreted.
  2. Meeting ESD levels beyond the specification targets does not mean a reduced rate of EOS returns. Overwhelming data from the Industry Council supports this assertion.
  3. Industry-wide surveys indicate a) EOS is the most common attribute of reported returns, b) most respondents indicated they use “damage signature” to determine EOS.
  4. EOS almost always represents permanent damage.
  5. Most common cause for EOS – 1) misapplication, 2) violations to absolute maximum ratings, 3) exposure to electrical stress events during assembly and in the field that violate the AMR
  6. Establishing a universal definition of EOS should foster better communication in the industry when addressing EOS problems
  7. Absolute maximum rating requires a more in-depth definition informing customers that exceeding the AMR value has risks and can lead to irrecoverable device damage. Also, an EOS event occurs if any AMR is exceeded for any period of time.
  8. AMR specifications must include constraints for excursions in system operation and environmental conditions needing to be accommodated by system design to allow safe operation and handling of semiconductor components.
  9. Electrical and environmental conditions for intended AMR values must be documented in datasheets.
  10. In unique systems requirements, the AMR values must be provided by semiconductor component suppliers according to electrical and environmental conditions given by system manufacturers.

The Industry Council hopes to foster understanding of EOS, the root cause determination for resolving EOS issues and implementation of methods for EOS mitigation.

 

 


Putting Your Components to the ESD Test

Posted on by Barb N. in ESD News, ESD Testing, Static Control Tips and Tricks Leave a comment

Testing ESD Sensitivity 

Testing the sensitivity of components to ESD can be done in a couple of different ways. Either way, you’re determining what it takes to make a device fail when subjected to an electrostatic discharge (ESD). The two primary models for ESD testing include Human Body Model (HBM) and Charged Device Model (CDM) testing.

The models can simulate events; though they can’t completely mimic the entire range of potential ESD events. These two tests, HBM and CDM however have proven to be successful at reproducing more than 99% of ESD field failure signatures. Through these tests industries can –

  • Create and quantify suitable on-chip protection
  • Make comparisons between devices
  • Form a classification system for ESD sensitivity to help ESD design and monitoring requirements of manufacturing and assembly settings
  • Access documented test procedures to substantiate reliable and repeatable results

Human Body Model (HBM) Testing

Kid with hair standing up ESD

Human Body Model (HBM) testing

It doesn’t take much to cause a discharge. Walk across the floor in your socks and you’ you add an electrostatic charge to your body. After doing so, if you were to touch your finger to a lead on a ESDS device or assembly, the body could discharge and possibly cause damage to the device.

The oldest and most common form of testing to classify ESD sensitivity–using an ESD simulator with a special output circuit called the Human Body Model (HBM). The device is placed in a test system and contact is made through a relay matrix and the device is zapped with ESDs.

The device is considered to have failed if it doesn’t meet the datasheet parameters using parametric and functional testing. Failures usually include junction damage, metal penetration, melting of metal layers, contact spiking and damaged gate oxides.

Charged Device Model (CDM) Testing

charged device model testing

Charged Device Model (CDM) testing

A charge can also come from an ESDS device and cause an ESD event. For instance, if a device slides down a feeder in an automated assembler, the device can become charged. If it were to touch the insertion head or another conductive device, a quick discharge may take place. This represents a Charged Device Model (CDM) event and is potentially more destructive than an HBM event. Damage can take place in as little as a nanosecond.

This type of event generally happens in automated-manufacturing environments where machines may always stay turned on and cause electronic integrated circuits (ICs) to become charged. If the part touches a grounded conductor, the built-up storage of energy discharges. CDM discharge depends mostly on the parasitic parameters of the discharge as well as the size and type of component package.

To test, the device is placed on a field plate with the leads pointing up; then the device is charged and discharged.

 

All-Spec EOS/ESD Audit Kit

All-Spec EOS/ESD Audit Kit

All-Spec carries a large selection of quality ESD testing and measurement equipment such as EOS/ESD audit kits, electrostatic field meters and static locators; surface resistivity meters; and ESD event, EMI field and RF signal detectors.

All-Spec also carries a comprehensive range of ESD-safe, static control grounding supplies and partners with industry leaders like  SCS, Desco, Simco-Ion and more to offer the best static control products on the market.

 


ESD–Smaller Parts, Bigger Problems

Posted on by Barb N. in ESD News, Static Control Tips and Tricks, Technical Articles Leave a comment

ESD Sparks Conversation

It’s no shock that smaller electronic parts have been causing bigger ESD (electrostatic dissipation) problems–serious problems that cause component damage and money. How much damage depends on the sensitivity or susceptibility of the device.

Thankfully you can put controls in place to significantly reduce ESD incidents. Preplanning, understanding causes and solutions, and wearing special fabrics and components will help.

Preplanning

  1. Design products and assemblies to be as protected as practical from ESD damage
  2. Decide how much of the environment needs to be controlled
  3. Identify the areas needing protection and ESD sensitive parts
  4. Define the electrostatic protected areas (EPAs)
  5. Define the areas where ESD sensitive parts (ESDs) will be handled
  6. Eliminate static generating processes to reduce electrostatic charge generation; keep processes and materials at the same electrostatic potential; provide appropriate ground paths to minimize charge generation and accumulation
  7. Use grounding, ionization, and conductive and dissipative static control materials to dissipate and neutralize
  8. Use grounding, ionization, and conductive and dissipative static control materials to dissipate and neutralize
  9. Protect products from ESD with proper grounding or shunting, static control packaging and material handling products

Areas needing ESD protection

Causes and effective solutions

ESD is a tiny version of lightning. As the current dissipates through an object, it’s seeking a low impedance path to ground to equalize potentials. In most cases, ESD currents will travel to ground via the metal chassis frame of a device. However, it’s well known that current will travel on every available path.

Table showing esd causes and solutions

Control the area

The first step is to ground all components of the workstation and the personnel (work surfaces, equipment, etc.) to the same electrical ground point, called the “common point ground” i.e., system or method for connecting two or more grounding conductors to the same electrical potential.

All-Spec carries all of the products listed below to help you control your environment and keep it safe from ESD.

ESD control materials